What is Motivational Interviewing?
Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller 1996) is a psychological intervention which is rooted in the client-centred counselling method of Carl Rogers (Rogers 1959) and gives great importance to both understanding a patient’s internal frame of mind and exhibiting unconditional positive regard (Miller & Rose 2009). The key elements of MI are partnership, acceptance, compassion, and evocation (Miller & Rollnick 2012). MI involves a flexible and strategic application of some core communication and counselling skills (Miller & Rollnick 2012) comprising: open questions, affirmation, reflective listening, summarizing, informing and advising with patient’s permission.
MI seems to be more effective in people at pre-contemplation and contemplation stages of change (Miller & Rose 2009). According to the Transtheoretical Model, people move through a series of stages in the process of changing behaviour from being unwilling (pre-contemplation stage), to considering a change (contemplation stage), and to make a change (action stage) (Prochaska & DiClemente 1986). Laplante-Levesque et al. (2014) assessed the stages of change in patients who failed a hearing screening test. 38% were in contemplation stage and 9% were in pre-contemplation stage, hence not everyone with hearing impairment was ready to use hearing aids (HAs). This could be a contributing factor to non-regular use. Therefore, combining MI with audiology care might improve non-regular use (Aazh 2016a; Aazh 2016b).
There are over 200 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of MI on a wide array of problems. Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses support efficacy of MI on adherence to long-term treatments and promoting behaviour change in management of alcohol abuse, addiction, weight loss, diabetes, physical activity, and smoking cessation (Rubak et al. 2005; Lai et al. 2010).
Aazh, H. (2016a). Feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to evaluatethe effect of motivational interviewing on hearing-aid use Int J Audiol, 55, 149-156.
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Rubak, S., Sandbaek, A., Lauritzen, T., et al. (2005). Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract, 55, 305-12.